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21st International Conference on Structural Biology, will be organized around the theme “”

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Structural Biology is that the branch of biology which embarks the importance of biophysics and biochemistry within the molecular structure of biological macromolecules. It also provides information about the effect of structural alterations of macromolecules on their function. This process of determination of structures of proteins, nucleic acids may take years because the shape, size and assemblies of those molecules could also be altering the function.

Proteomics is that the newest and therefore the most discussed topic within the field of Structural Biology. It deals with determining the structure and performance of proteins- the building blocks of the physical body . It found its importance after the introduction of the Human Genome Project. Almost every process that happens in our cells – from the metabolization of straightforward sugar to the division of cells – depends on proteins for smooth operation. Genomics is that the study of structure, working, mapping and alteration of genomes. the whole arrangement of DNA- the knowledge center of our body is understood as genomics. Proteomics and Genomics are interrelated. Proteomics involve the study of structural determination of the body whereas Genomics involve the study of genetic makeup of the body.

Biochemistry is that the study of chemical processes happening inside the physical body.Recently this subject has found its importance within the biological world because it has found its importance altogether fields of bioscience and biology.By controlling information flow through biochemical signaling and therefore the flow of energy through metabolism,biochemical processes produce to the complexity of life. Its main focus is to know how biological molecules produce to the processes that occur within living cells

Biophysics is that the trending topic within the field of biology.It relates physics and biology. In other words, it signifies how traditional physical methods are wont to study the biological phenomena inside the physical body.Biophysical research shares significant overlap with biochemistry, biologychemistry, physiology, nanotechnology, bioengineering, computational biology, biomechanics and systems biology.

Molecular Biology may be a vast topic which deals with the structure and performance of macromolecules. it's usually combined with techniques of Genetics and Biochemistry. Till 2000, genetics was the sub-field of biology . Since biology is usually quantitative it’s in edge with computational biology and bioinformatics. Other zones of Biology focus directly or indirectly on molecules, whereas developmental biology and cell biology focus directly, while phylogenetic and evolutionary biology focus indirectly. Genetics deals with study of mutants and its comparison with the wild type (normal phenotype).

Biomolecules are very small to ascertain intimately even by most cutting-edge light microscopes. The methods that the structural biologists use to work out their structures generally involve the measurements on huge numbers of identical molecules at an equivalent time. a number of the simplest methods include X-ray crystallography, cryo-electron microscopy and nuclear resonance  aside from these methods there are many additional methods through which 3 D Structure Determination are often done.

Computational approaches are a boon for structural biology. These methods use the concepts of bioinformatics to work out the structure of macromolecules. generally , the structure of molecules is decided by experimental methods is both time intense and price effective. to beat these constraints, computational approaches like ab-initio modelling, homology modelling and threading method are used

 



 



 



 



 



 



 



 



 



 



 



 



 



 



 



 



 



 



 



 



 



 



 



 

Molecular modelling involves the hypothetical and computational procedures which are wont to mimic the behaviour of macromolecules. Molecular modelling techniques are utilized in various fields a number of which are drug design, computational chemistry, materials science and computational biology. These methods are used for studying and understanding the properties of the molecules. one among the main applications of molecular modelling is molecular simulation. this is often the technique which uses powerful lculatiocomputers to simulate the interactions between atoms and to know the properties of materials. Such simulations involve methods that range from very detailed quantum mechanical cans on atoms to coarse-grained classical dynamics of huge groups of molecules on a timescale of milliseconds or longer.

Molecular dynamics (MD) deals with the study of physical movements of the atoms and molecules using simulation method, so it's mentioned together of the sort of N-body simulation. The atoms and molecules are allowed to interact for a hard and fast period of your time , giving a view of the dynamic evolution of the system. The trajectories of atoms and molecules are commonly determined by solving them numerically using Newton’s equations of motion for a gaggle of collaborating particles. The forces between the particles and their potential energies are calculated using inter-atomic potentials or molecular mechanics force fields. Steered molecular dynamics (SMD).

A biomarker is an attribute which will be studied as an indicator of pathogenic and biological operation along side pharmacological retort to a therapeutic involvement. They indicate either normal or diseased activity within the body. Biomarkers are specific molecules, genes, gene products, hormones, cells or enzymes.

Drug designing is an ingenious process to seek out new medication centred on the knowledge of biological target. Drug is most ordinarily a little molecule that inhibits or activates the function of a biomolecule, which successively outcomes during a therapeutic benefit to the patient. Drug design commonly but not essentially relies on computational techniques. this sort of modelling is usually mentioned to as computer-aided drug design.

Signalling is that the process through which the cells communicate with one another . they're often secreted from the cell and released into the extracellular space. Regulation of organic phenomenon comprises a comprehensive range of mechanisms that are employed by cells to manage the assembly of specific gene products, and is familiarly termed as gene regulation. Sophisticated programs of organic phenomenon are extensively observed in biology, for instance to trigger developmental pathways, adapt to new food sources, or answer environmental stimuli. 

Enzymes play an important role in signalling the cellular and metabolic pathways. Research works are happening to spot , how the enzymes function at molecular and atomic level by combining the fashionable and structural biology.

Sequence analysis are often explained as a process of exposing DNA, RNA or peptide sequence to a good range of analytical methods so as to know its structure, function and evolution. The methods include sequence alignment and biological databases. Synergistic use of three-dimensional structures and deep sequencing is completed to understand the effect of personalized medicine. The usage of sequence analysis in structural biology will pave the thanks to new methods which may be utilized to work out the structure of molecules.

This is a price effective approach for determining the protein structure. The computational prediction methods, like initiating fragment assembly, advanced fold recognition, composite approaches, and molecular docking are regularly applied in recent times to expand our understanding of protein structures. Hybrid approach may be a channel to beat these disadvantages, by incorporating limited experimental measurements, reliable structures are often computed, and unlikely predictions are eliminated. the present researches are showing great interest during this method of approach.

Structural bioinformatics is an exceptionally cost-effective solution for protein structure determination. Purely computational prediction methods, like initially fragment assembly, advanced fold recognition, composite approaches, and molecular docking are regularly applied today to increase our understanding of protein structures. However, predicted structures aren't given an equivalent reliance as their experimental complements. Hybrid approaches are a way to beat these limitations; by incorporating limited experimental measurements, reliable structures are often computed, and unlikely predictions eliminated. Hybrid approaches cash in of knowledge derived from a good range of various biophysical and biochemical methods. These methods are of growing interest in current researches of structural biology.

The main focus of a structural biologist is protein structure determination and drug design. Protein plays a crucial role in physical body . Living things wouldn't exist without proteins. The proteins are usually involved altogether sorts of expressions of the living organism. Most of the proteins are evolved in providing structure to the cell while the others tend to bin and carry vital molecules during the body. Some proteins are involved in biochemical reactions within the body which are termed as enzymes. Others are involved in muscle contractions and immunity. Structure determination of proteins has always been a challenging filed. The complex areas within the field include viruses, pathogens, membrane proteins and signalling pathways. Novel progressions are being wiped out the arenas of nano-patterning and multi-scale modelling of cell signalling proteins.

The main aim of integrating structural biology data into cancer research is to style and find out novel and effective drugs to cure the disease. Structural biology combined with molecular modelling mainly aims at drug designing. Consequently, variety of Structural Biologists are conducting cancer research, to speed-up the method of understanding the mechanism of biomolecules so as to enhance the newer cancer therapies.

Major a part of research is being administered within the area of cancer. the most aim is to style and find out novel and effective drugs to cure the disease. Structural biology combined with molecular modelling mainly aims at drug designing. Subsequently, numerous team leaders in Structural biology perform cancer research to accelerate the exploitation of molecular understanding of biomolecules within the advancement of novel cancer therapies.

Molecular techniques are utilized in biology , biochemistry and genetics for the analysis of DNA, RNA and protein. Molecular cloning is that the widely used molecular technique. the various methods in biology are Haemocytometer cell counter, restriction endonuclease digestion, DNA ligation, transfection, western blot, plasmid purification, electroporation, heat shock method and ELISA.

 

A database is an organised collection of knowledge . As a results of enormous research which is being wiped out Structural biology massive data has been produced. so as to assemble the info during a catalogued manner, bioinformatics databases are used. Various databases are created to store biological data, like sequence databases, structure databases, signalling pathway databases, etc.

A database may be a structured collection of knowledge . within the field of structural biology enormous research is being done and as a result massive data is being produced. so as to pile the info in an organized manner, bioinformatics databases are used. Various databases are created to store biological data, like sequence databases, structure databases, signalling pathway databases, etc. within the field of structural biology, the mainly used databases are Protein Data Bank (PDB), microscopy Data Bank, Protein Structure Classification Database (CATH) and Structural Classification of Protein (SCOP).

Structural biology is one among the progressing fields. within the course of your time many developments are happening . Huge numbers of solved structures have exaggerated rapidly. the sector of drug design and drug discovery has been advanced. Functional annotations are another field where progressions are rapidly evolving. Alterations so as to enhance the effectiveness of prevailing tools also can be noted. Remarkable advances are made within the areas of technical imaging and advancement of hybrid methods to know the structure and performance of proteins.